What is FameLab?

FameLab is an international competition designed to engage and entertain by challenging young scientists to communicate their science to a public audience in under 3 minutes. Talks are fun and engaging, making science relevant to everyone, without using jargon or formal presentations. Talks are judged on content, clarity and charisma.

Who can enter?

Entrants must be 21 to 35 years of age and currently registered, studying or working in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in South Africa.

How can you enter?

Multiple heats take place across the country, hosted by various institutions. Any institutions wishing to host a heat can complete the Expression of Interest (https://bit.ly/FameLab_ExpressionOfInterest). The schedule of heats will be published soon with details of how participants can register.

Why should you enter?

  • Enhance your presentation skills through competition and training by some of the world’s best science communicators.
  • Network with scientists from diverse disciplines.
  • Be part of the growing community of passionate scientists, from around the world. Get noticed – put your science on a national and international platform.

What can you win?

  • National winner will receive a R5 000.00 cash prize and the chance to represent South African in the FameLab International finals.
  • National runners-up will win R2 500.00 cash prize each.
  • Semi-finalists will receive science communication masterclass training delivered by world renowned trainers.

FameLab is an international competition designed to engage and entertain by challenging young scientists to communicate their science to a public audience in under 3 minutes. Talks are fun and engaging, making science relevant to everyone, without using jargon or formal presentations. Talks are judged on content, clarity and charisma.

Mopani, in Limpopo, is a tropical region and the province’s agricultural hub. Because it is a tropical region, it has only two seasons - the dry and wet season - making it highly susceptible to climate change. Letago’s research look at the impact of climate change on small holder farmers and agriculture in this region. Climate change means long term variability in weather patterns and is often characterised by increased temperature and changes in precipitation. In the Mopani district, in the wet seasons there are more floods, thunderstorms and hailstorms, while in the dry seasons, there are more veld fires, droughts and dry spells. The impact of climate change can be seen in agriculture, through reduced crop production and general poor crop health, more animal disease and land degradation. How well farmers perceive and understand climate change determines how well they adapt to it. In the Mopani district, farmers use indigenous knowledge passed on from generation to generation to adapt to climate change more than the methods prescribed by the department of agriculture. Letago’s research advocates for the inclusion for the indigenous knowledge systems as viable sources of knowledge for disaster management strategy in climate change policies.

Hambileswi mati ya languteka ya basile ku tlula mati yo languteka ya thyakile ya muhlovo wa ribungwa, kambe a swi vuli leswaku ya nga nwiwa hikuva ya nga va ya ri na thyaka ro kari leri nga voniwiki hi matihlo. Swin’wana leswi thyakisaka mati I mirhi yo fana na Nevirapine ku nga murhi lowu tirhisiwaka ku tshungula xitsongwatsongwana xa HIV na AIDS. Murhi kumbe maphilisi yo fana na lawa ya fika na le tiphayiphini ta mati ku suka eka murhundzu, mahuma loko ku fulaxiwa exihambukelweni. Ku nwa mati yo ka ya nga tenganga swi vangelana kuvabyi. I swa konka ku va hi kota ku vona mirhi leyi endzeni ka mati. Sweswi ku tirhisiwa michini leyikulu yo durha naswona yi teka nkarhi wo leha. Kambe michini leyi tirhisaka ti ‘quantum dots’ ku nga michumu leyintsongo swinene leswi vulaka leswaku hambi hi matihlo a yi voniwi. Michumu leyi hi yona yi nga antswisaka xiyimo lexi hikuva yi nga kota ku vona mirhi leyi endzeni ka mati. Hi maendlelo lawa ha tshemba leswaku mati ya ta tengisiwa ku antswa leswaku vanhu va nwa mati yo tenga.

Mopani, eLimpopo I ndhawu ya xifundza xa tropika yi tlhela yiva xifunzdhankulu xa swa vurimi. Hikuva I xifundza xa tropika,xi na tinguva timbirhi nguva yo oma  na nguva yo tsakama leswi nga tolovekiki. Nlavisiso wa Letago wu languta eka switandzhaku swa ku cinca ka tlayimeti eka varimi lava ntsongo na vurimi eka xifundzha lexi. Ku cinca ka tlayimeti swi nga endla leswaku ku tlakuka mahiselo na timpfula. eXifundzheni xa Mopani hi nguva yo tsakama kuna tindhambi to tala, mabubutsa na tilo, na mabubutsa ya xihangu, kasi hi nguva yo oma, kuna ku pya ka khwati, dyandza na ku oma ka misava. Switandzaku swa ku cinca ka tlayimeti swi nga voniwa eka vurimi, eka ku ehla ka ntshovelo, na kuva swimilana swi nga kuli hi mfanelo, ku tala ka vuvabyi bya swiharhi na ku cinca ka misava. Leswi varimi va swi vonisaka xiswona ni vutivi bya vona bya ku cinca ka tlayimeti swi kombisa leswaku va swi tolovele ku fika kwini.  eXifundzheni xa Mopani, varimi va tirhisa vutivi bya vona bya khale lebyi va nga byi kuma eka rixaka ra vona ra khale ku tolovela ku cinca ka tlayimeti ku tlula maendlelo lawa ya nga hlawuriwa hi ndzawulo ya vurimi. Vulavisisi bya Letago byi seketela leswaku maendlelo lawa ya vutivi bya khale  bya varimi I bya nkoka eka mfumo ku va wu nyika swilemukiso swa kahle.

 

HIV positive people take medication called ARVs (antiretrovirals) to help them live longer and healthier lives. However, the ARVs also change how mitochondria in our cells of the body work. Mitochondria are found inside cells and they work like batteries. They give energy to cells but when they ‘run down’ they affect organs in the body, including the eyes. Eyes are important for our sight, but also, through them, we can get an overall view of someone’s health and lifestyle. This is because the blood vessels in the eyes are directly visible. You can tell if someone is taking their medication or not. Early diagnoses of different diseases can also be made through the eyes. Lungile’s research will track how ARVs and HIV affect the body by taking a picture of the retina, part of the eye that helps us to see, using optical coherence tomography or OCT for short. The OCT allows you to see the different layers in an eye. These layers in HIV positive people and non-infected people have been found to be different. Lungile’s research will study the differences in the pigment layer. It is a non-invasive method and will allow her to track how the disease is affecting the body.

Vanhu lava va nga na HIV va teka maphilisi lawa ya vitaniwaka ma ARVs (antiretrovirals) ku va pfuna leswaku va hanya nkarhi wo leha va tlhela va va na rihanyo ra kahle. Hambiswiritano ma ARVs ya cinca leswi mitochondria eka ti sele ta miri wa hina ti tirhisaka xiswona.  Mitochondria yi kumeka endzeni ka ti sele naswona yi tirha tanihi mabetri. Ya nyika ti sele matimba  kambe loko mahela swi onha swirho emirini, ku katsa na matihlo.  Mithlo I ya nkoka hikuva ya hi pfuna ku vona, kambe eka wona hi nga tlhela hi kuma leswaku munhu rihanyo ra yena ri njani na mahanyelo ya yena. Hikuva misiha ya ngati ematihlweni ya vonaka. U nga swikota ku vona leswaku munhu wa nwa maphilisi kumbe e-e. vuvanyi byo hambana hambana byi nga kamberiwa hiku languta endzeni ka matihlo ntsena. Vulavisisi bya Lunghile byi ta landzelela leswaku ma ARVs na HIV swi tikisela miri njani hi ku teka xinepe xa retina lexi xi hi pfunanaka leswaku hi kota ku vona, ku tirhisiwa Optical Coherence Tomography kumbe OCT hi ku komisa. OCT yi ku pfumelela leswaku u vona tindhawu hinkwato endzeni ka tihlo. Ti ndhawu leti, eka vanhu lava va nga na HIV na vanhu lava va kalaka va nga ri ki na yona a ti fani. Vulavisis bya Lunghile byi ta lunguta ku hambana eka tinghawu leti. Maendlelo lawa a ya na sejari naswona swi ta n’wi pfumelela leswaku a kota ku landzelela vuvabyi lebyi onhaka miri.

Vhathu vhano lwala dzwadze tshifu ‘HIV’ vha dzhia philisi dza ARVs uri dzikone uvha thusa khau lalama nauvha na mutakalo. ARVs I shandukisa mitochondria kha kushumele kwa muvhilini. Mitochondria dzi wanala kha dzi sele dza muvhili dza shuma sa bitiri. Dzifha maanda kha dzi sele ngeno musi dzo fhela maanda dzi vhaisa nga ngomu muvhilini wa muthu na mato. Mato ndia vhuthugwa khau vhona.  Nauri ngauto asedza ria kona uvhona mutakalo wa muthu na kutshilele kwawe. Hezwi ndi ngauri tsinga dza malofha auya kha mato dzia vhonala. Zwia sumbedza uri muthu ukho mila philisi dzawe na kana hakho dzhia. Tsedzuluso ngau tavhanya dza malwadze dzia kona uitwa ngakha mato a muthu. Tsedzuluso dza Lungile  dzidodi sendekana kha ARVs and HIV uri dzi vhaisa hani  muvhili ngauto dzhia tshinepe tsha retina, tshipida tsha lito tshinori thusa uvhona, ritshikho shumisa Optical Coherence Tomography kana OCT. Heyi OCT iri thusa khau vhona mbemba dzoyaho ngau fhambana kha mato. Hedzi mbemba kha vhathu vharena HIV na vhasongo kavhiwaho ddzivhonala dzo fhambana. Tsedzuluso dza Lungile dzido todolosa phambano vhukati ha mbemba idzo. Ndi mulayo wo tendelwaho une wado muthusa khau wanulusa uri malwadze aya akho vhaisa muvhili nga ndilade.

A healthy skin and pore has an outer most layer (or epidermis), the middle layer (or dermis), and hair follicles. Sebaceous glands produce the body’s natural oil called sebum to help moisturise and protect the skin, and only a small amount of sebum is necessary to maintain soft skin. But with acne, sebum is over produced. This causes the top layer of dead skin cells to become very sticky, which creates an environment for bacteria to overgrow, causing redness, swelling and pus. Squeezing a pimple causes the infection to spread to other arears of the skin where more acne can develop. Shivani’s research focuses on studying naturally-derived rosehip carrier oil in combination with essentials oils for the treatment of acne. The combination of the oils help to sooth the redness and swelling of the skin and also stops the growth of bacteria. The oils penetrate deep into the skin so the skin is not left greasy and they can restore balance to the skin.

Dzovo ra rihanyo ra kahle ri na randlalo ra le handle, randlalo ra le xikarhi, na laha ku nga na misisi. Nhlaribye ya mafurha yi humesa mafurha ya ntumbuluko lawa ya vitaniwaka sebum lawa ya pfunaka ku tsakamisa no hlayisa dzovo, naswona I sebum leyintsongo leyi lavekaka leswaku dzovo ro olova. Kambe loko swi ta ka swirhumbana (acne), mafurha ya huma ku tlula mpipo. Leswi swi endla leswaku dzovo leri nga le hendla ra ti sele leti nga fa ri khomana, leswi swi endlaka ndhawu ya xiborokisi ku yi andza, leswi swi nga ta endla ku tshwukuluka, ku pfimba na vuvopfu.  Ku boxa xirhumbana swi endla leswaku xi tlulela eka tin’wana tindhawu eka dzovo laha xin’wana xirhumbana xi nga kotaka ku huma kona. Nlavisiso wa Shivani wu langutela ku dyondza maendlelo ya mafurha ya rosehip na nkatsakanyo wa mafurha ya nkoka ku ta herisa swirhumbana. Nkatsakanyo wa mafurha lawa ya pfula eka ku herisa ku tshwukuluka na ku pfimba ka dzovo, nakambe na ku yimisa ku kula ka xiborokisi. Mafurha lawa ya nghena endzeni ka dzovo leswaku leswaku ri nga taleriwi hi mafurha naswona ya tlhela ya kota ku lulamisa dzovo no ri tlherisela ematshan’wini.

Lukanda lurena mutakalo na mabuli-buli luna mbemba nga nnda, mbemba ya vhukati na mahaha. Sebaceous gland ithusa muvhili uri u bveledze mapfura ane apfi sebum uthusa u penyelela nau tsireledza muvhili. Nauri rotha lituku la sebum li thusa u penyelelisa lukanda lusekene. Fhedzi huna acne heyi sebum ito nana ubveledzwa. Izwi zwiita uri lukanda lwa ntha lwa lukanda lwofaho  lu onyane, zwinw zwaita uri zwitshili zwiwane fhethu hau aluwa hone., zwa tsuka, uzwimba nau kukumuwa. U kwatula tsipundu zwiita uri tsibve hune kha lunwe lurumbu lwa lukanda hune acne yado hula hone. Tsedzuluso dza Shivani dzo sedzana na Naturally-Deliver Rosehip carrier oil nau tangana ha manwe mapfura au alafha acne.  U tanagana ha mapfura aya zwiita thusa khau tsukuluwa nau kukumuwa ha lukanda nau hivhela ualuwa ha zwitshili. Mapfura ato dzhenelela nga maada kha lukanda uitela uri lukanda lwasa sale lawo bauluwa uri hukoniwe uvhuisiwa lukanda lwavhudi.

Cyclodextrin can be used to treat cancer along with other chemotherapy drugs. It acts like a vacuum sucking up the cholesterol that protects cancer cells from being destroyed in the body. Cholesterol is a substance found within cells and protects them from death while allowing them to grow, move and multiply. However cancer has too much cholesterol within their cell membrane that protects them. Once the cholesterol is removed, the cancer cells are weakened and other chemotherapy drugs can come in and fight against the cancer cells. Cyclodextrin can save millions of lives.

Cyclodextrin yi nga tirhisiwa ku tshungula vuvabyi bya mfukuzana hi maphilisi ya chemotheraphy. Yi tirha ku fana na vaccum leyi mamaka cholesteral leyi sirhelelaka mfukuzana leswaku yi herisiwa emirini. Cholesterol I swilo leswi kumiwaka eka ti sele ,yi tlhela yi ti sirhelela ku ti nga fi kambe yi ti pfumelela leswakuti kula, ti fambafamba, ti tlhela ti andza. Hambiswiritano, mfukuzana yi na cholesterol yo tala eka ti sele leti ti ti sirhelelaka. Loko cholesterol yi susiwa mfukuzana wu ta hela matimba na maphilisi ya chemotheraphy ya ta kota ku nghena ya lwisana na ti sele ta mfukuzana. Cyclodextrin yi nga pfuna gidi ya magidi ya vutomi bya vanhu.

Cyclodextrin inga kona u thusa chemotheraphy u alafha khentsa. Ishuma sa mutshini wau bvisa dzitshika dzinonga Cholesterol i tsireledza sele dza khentsa khau kwashea ha muvhili. Cholesterol ndi tshishumiswa tshine tsha wanala kha sele tshine tshadzi tsireledza kha lufu musi tshikhodzi tendela uri dzi hule, utshimbila nau dala. khentsa in cholesterol nzhisa ngakha zwivalo zwa sele yadzo dzine dzadzi kuvhatedza. Musi cholesterol dzono bvisiwa sele dza cancer dzi mbodi fhela maanda, philisi dza chemotherapy dzinga kona udzhena dzalwa la vhulwadze na vhulwadze ha khentsa. Cyclodextrin iya phulusa matshilo avhathu uswika kha million.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) has infected about 37.7 million people worldwide, two thirds of whom are in Sub-Saharan Africa.  There is still no cure for it. Once the virus is in the body, it instructs cells to make more copies of itself. The copies then infect healthy cells and spread the infection throughout the body. A person that is infected with HIV takes ARVs, which is now only one pill a day. However, in some cases the virus lies asleep in some of the cells and does not produce copies of itself. It cannot be targeted by the ARVs, and this makes finding a cure for HIV difficult. These cells cluster together to form a ‘HIV latent reservoir’, but it is not known how the reservoirs are formed. HIV has a special gene called ‘tat’ that plays an important role in HIV replication. Changes in ‘tat’ can either decrease or increase HIV replication. ‘Tat’ works together with ‘P-TEFb’ to enhance the rate of HIV replication. Zakhithi’s research aims to find how changes in ‘tat’ affect its ability to work with ‘P-TEFb’ and also to know how to wake up the sleepy virus so it can begin to replicate again and thus be targeted by ARVs. This will edge us closer to finding the cure for HIV.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) yi tlulele vanhu vo ringana 37.7 ya gidi ya magidi misava hinkwayo, mbirhi-xa-nharhu eka lava va nga le Sub-Saharan Afrika. Nasweswi a kuna vutsunguri bya yona. Loko xitsongwatsongwana lexi xi nghena emirini, xi lerisa ti sele leswaku ti endla tikhopi tin’wana to fana na tona. Ti sele leti hi tona ti tluletaka ti sele ta kahle emirini leswaku na tona ti hangalasa xitsongwatsongwana lexi miri hinkwawo. Munhu lweyi a nga na vuvabyi bya HIV i nwa maARVs, sweswi ku nga philisi rin’we hi siku. Hambiswiritano, nkarhi un’wana xitsongwatsongwana lexi xa etlela eka ti sele tin’wana xi nga endli tikhopi to fana na xona. Loko swi ri hi ndlela leyi ti ARVs ta tsandzeka ku xi kuma, leswi swi endlaka leswaku swi tika ku tshungula HIV. Ti sele leti ta hlangana hi ntlawa ti endla HIV ‘latent reservoir’, kambe ti na nkoka lowu kulu eku tatiseni ka HIV. Ku cinca ka ‘tat’ swi nga ehlisa kumbe ku tlakusa eku tatiseni ka HIV. ‘Tat’ yi tirha swin’we na ‘P-TEFb’ ku tlakusa HIV. Vulavisisi bya Zakithi byi lava ku kuma leswi endlaka ‘tat’ yi nga koti ku tirhisana na ‘P-TEFb’ na ku tiva leswaku xitsongwatsongwana lexi xi nga etlela xi nga pfuxiwa njani leswaku xi ta sungula ku ti andzisa nakambe leswaku maARVs ya ta tirha eka xona. Leswi swi ta hi tshuneta ekusuhi na ku kuma vutshunguri bya HIV.

HIV yono kavha vhathu vhano swika 37.7 ya million ya vhathu shango nga vhuphara. Vhuvhili ha dzinwe dzavha kha Sub-Sahara Africa. Hutuvha na mushonga une watopfi uyai fhodza. Musi tshitshili itsho tshitshito dzhena kha muvhili, tshirumela dzi sele uri dziite dzi khophi dzatsho. Idzo khophi dzavha dzone dzino kavha sele dzirena mutakalo dza kona upfukela kha muvhili wothe. Muthu o kavhiwaho nga HIV udzia ARVs, ine yavha yone philisi nthihi ine wa tea u dzhia luthihi kha muvhili. Nga inwe ndila tshitshili hetshi tshia edela kha dzinwe dzadzi sele tshasa kone u bveledzisa dzi khophi. Ingasi kone u kundwa nga ARVs, zwine zwa ita uri huvhe na vhukondi hau wana mushonga wa HIV. Idzi sele dzitumana dzavha tshivhumbeo tshau tsireledza HIV, fhedzi azwi divhei uri izwo zwiteireledzi zwivhumbea hani.  HIV ina gene ine yavha na vhuimo vhuhulu. Tshanduko kha ‘tat’ i fhungudza kana zwagonyisa u kavhiwa ha HIV. Ukwamana ha ‘Tat’ hu shumisana na ‘P-TEFb uitela uri I kone u vhona kualutshle kwa HIV. Tsedzuluso dza Zakhithi dzodi sendeka khau sedza kushandukele kwa ‘Tat’ uri ku kwamana hani na kushumele kwa P-TEFb nau divha uri tshitshili tsho edelaho tshinga vuswa nga ndilade uri tshi kone u dala tsha dovha uri tsho vhalelwa nga ARVs. Izwi zwidori konisa uri rikone uwana mushonga wa HIV.

Caitlin fell in love with the prehistoric world and wanted to explore the past. As a palaeobiologist, she is fulfilling her lifelong dream. When we are facing unprecedented challenges of global change and social unrest, why should we care about some long dead bones? By looking at fossils, we can see through to the past. The sun that shines upon us today rises over a very different Africa than it did in prehistory. Some species of the past are now extinct but their resilient relatives forged on to give rise to species we see today. Palaeoscience helps us understand things of the past and better understand modern biodiversity, model long term patterns and help us make informed decisions about our future. When we face challenges of an unpredictable future we need only to look in our past and be reminded that life does indeed find a way.

Caitlin I rhandzile misava yakhale a tlhela a lava ku kuma leswi swi nga endleka melembe ndzhaku. Tani hi munhu lweyi a nga dyondzela ntivo-swa-khale ya swa marhambu ya swiharhi, I humelerisa ku navela kayena ka malembe. Loko hi hlangana na swiyomo swo ka hi nga swi rindzelanga leswi cincaka misava hinkwayo, leswi nga tiseki kurhula eka vanhu, hikokwalaho ka yini hi va na mhaka na marhambu lawa ya nga fa khale? Hi ku languta marhambu ya swiharhi ya khale, hi nga swikota ku vona leswi nga humelela khale. Dyambu leri ri hi tlhavelaka namuntlha ri tlhava eka Afrika yo hambana na leyi a ri tlhava eka yona khale. Swiharhi swin’wani swa khale sweswi a swa ha ri kona kambe swo fana na swona hiswona leswi hi swi vonaka namuntlha. Ntivo-swa-khale ya swa marhambu ya swiharhi yi hi pfuna ku hi twisisa swilo swa khale na ku tswisisa swa sweswi. Yi tlhela yi hi pfuna leswaku hi teka magoza eka leswi hi swi lavaka eka vumundzuku bya hina. Loko hi hlangana na swiphiqo leswi ahi nga swi langutelanga hi fanele hi languta ndhzaku hi tsundzuka leswaku vutomi bya cinca loko mkarhi wu famba.

Caitlin othoma u funana na divhazwakale ya shango atoda udivhesesa ngazwa kale.  Sa Mupalaeobiologist uco bveledza muloro wa vhutshilo hawe.  Musi ritshi khou tangana na vhukondi husongo lavheleleaho ha ushanduka ha mupo na nyambedzano dzi songo doweleaho, ndi ngani ritshi tea uvha na ndavha na marambo osinaho? Ngauto sedza masalela ria kona uvhona zwa murahu. Duvha heli line la khouri penyela namusilitakutshela ntha ha afrika lo shandukaho kha helia la ngei murahu. Lunwe lushaka lwa murahu hangei lwono fhelela fhedzi vhanwe mashaka ahone vholingedza khauri huvhe na nyaluwo kha lushaka lune rakho luvhona namusi.  Nupalaeosaitsi u shuma uri thusa uri rikone upfesesa zwithu zwa kale nauri rikone upfesesa mupo wa musalauno, uko kutevhedzele kwari thusa uri ri kone udi dzhiela dzi tsheo tshifhingani tshidaho. Musi ritshi tangana na vhukondi ha vhutshilo risongo lavhelela ri tea u sedza vhubvo hashu rii humbudzwe uri vhutshilo huya wana ndila.

Blood sugar and insulin level have highs and lows throughout the day. Food scientists use a tool called the glycaemic index (GI) to rate how carbohydrate foods boost blood sugar levels. High GI foods, such as doughnuts and white bead, have a GI from 75-100.  Low GI foods have a GI less than 55. This includes all-grain foods, like brown rice and brown bread. A key food component that can be used reduce the carbohydrate load of food is fibre. Fibre is an edible part of a plant, which is not digested in your small intestine but travels to the large intestine where it is broken down by micro-organisms to release a compound called short chain fatty acids and helps to release a steady flow of sugar in the blood throughout the day. The World Health Organisation recommends an adult should consume 29- 40 grams of fibre per day, but South Africans consume only about 10 grams per day. Oluwatyoyin’s research aims to bridge this fibre gap, by introducing fibre from wheat bran and oat bran into a popularly consumed, deep fried dough snack called ‘amagwinya’, which is made from wheat flour, sugar, water and yeast. ‘Amagwinya’ has a high oil and high carbohydrate content. In the lab, ‘amagwinya’ has been enriched with an oat and wheat bran and GI levels measured. The ‘amagwinya’ without bran had 80 GI and while the one with bran had 56 GI, which means adding bran lowers the GI level from a high GI to a medium GI. This could help us reach our target for fibre each day.

Chukele ra ngati na levheli ya insulin yi na lehenhla na lehansi siku hinkwaro.  Vanhu va sayense ya swakudya va tirhisa xitirhisiwa lexi vitaniwaka glycaemic index ku nga GI hi ku komisa ku pima leswaku swakudya swa khabohayidireti swi tlakusa njani levheli ya chukele ra ngati. GI ya le henhla ya swakudya swo fana na madhonati na xinkwa xo basa swi na GI yo suka ka 75-100.  GI ya le hansi ya swakudya yi na GI ya le hansi ka 55. Leswi swi katsa swakudya hinkwaswo swa tindzoho swo fana na rhayisi na xinkwa xa ribungwa. Swakudya leswi nga tirhisiwaka ku hunguta khabohayidireri I fayiba. Fayiba I ndhawu yo karhi ya ximilana leyi dyiwaka, leswi nga koteki ku gayeleka eka marhumbu lamantsongo kambe swi ya eka marhumbu lamakulu laha swi kotaka ku gayeleka hi micro-organisms ku humesa ti esidi ta mafurha no pfuna ku humesa chukele ro tala engatini siku hinkwaro. World Health Organisation yi hlohlotla leswaku lonkulu u fanele ku dya 29-40 ya ti gireme ta fayiba hi siku, kambe vanhu va Afrika-Dzonga va dya 10 wa ti gireme ntsena hi siku. Vulavisisi bya Oluwatyoyin byi lava ku pfala vangwa leri nga kona ra fayiba, hi ku katsa mapa ya koroni na mapa ya otsi eka magwinya hikuva ya dyiwa ngopfu. Magwinya I mbila leyi cheriwaka emafurheni ya ku hisa, lawa ya endliwaka hi fulawa ya koroni, chukele, mati na handzelo.  Mangwinya ya na mafurha yo tala na khabohayidireti ya le henhla. eLebu mangwinya ya nonisiwile hi otsi na mapa ya koroni na tilevheli ta GI leti nga kaliwa. Mangwinya loko ya nga ri na mapa ya va na GI yo fika ka 80 kasi leyi nga na mapa yi na 56 GI, leswi vulaka leswaku loko u tatisa mapa swi ehlisa levheli ya GI ku suka henhla yi ya ka GI ya le xikarhi. Leswi swi nga endla leswaku hi fikelela ku navela ka hina hi tlhelo ra fayiba siku na siku.

Swigiri ya malofha inau gonya nautsa duvha lothe. Rasaintsi wa zwiliwa u shumisa chishumiswa tshinopfi Gycaemic index usedza uri zwiliwa zwirena carbohydrates zifha maanda hani swigiri ya malofha.zwiliwa zwirena GI ire ntha, ufanana na magwinya  na vhurotho vhutshena, zwina GI yau swika 75000. Zwiliwa zwirena GI thukhu zwidovha zwavhana GI ire fhasi ha 55. Hezwi zwi jenisa na zwiliwa zwothe zwa gurou, u fanana na raisi ya buraweni na vhurotho ha burawen. Mvula tswinga ya zwiliwa ine yanga shumiswa u fhungudza tsileme tsha carbohydrate kha zwiliwa ndi fibre/mupfemu.  Mupfemu/fibre ndi tshimela tsho khwathaho, tshine tshingasi kone u sukanyea kha lila lisekene fhedzi tshi tshimbila tshaya kha lila lihulwane hune lado kona u khwashekanyea nga micro-organisms uri ibvise khomphaundu ine yavha tshaini thukhu ya fatty acids  ine ya thusa ubvisa swigiri yo soko omaho kha malofha  duvha lothe. World Health Organisationikho tutuwedza uri vhaaluwa vhatea ula 29-40 yadzi gireme dza fibre/mupfemu nga duvha, fhedzi vhathu vha South Africa vhala gireme dza funi (10) fhedzi nga duvha. Tsedzuluso dza Oluwatyyoin’s   dzodi sendeka kha u dzhenelela kha gepe la fibre, ngau divhadza fibre ubva kha matanga  na luvhele  uri zwi gayiwe zwikone ulea, iyo fulauri ifhedze I dzheniswe mapfurani iite Gwinya, ginya ibva kha fulauru. Swigiri, madi na isithi. Magwinya ana mapfura manzhi na khabohydireithi nzhi.  Nga ngomu lab magwinya usedzuluswa a wanala ana ofura kana o dala oat na matanga o gayiwaho  na GI yokaliwaho. Magwinya asina mufumbu ana 80 GI ngeno arena mufumbu ana 56 GI, zwinokho amba uri uengedza mufumbu  zwifhungudza GI  kha GI khulwane  udela vhukati kha GI.  Izwi zwido kona uri thgusa uri ri kone uswikelela tshikalo tsha fibre yashu.

About 256 million people worldwide suffer from anxiety and depression. These diseases are often interlinked, with 50 percent of people who suffer from depression also suffering from anxiety. Sufferers take medication for a very long period of time, and they need to find the right medication that works for them and does not cause bad side effects. From 1980 to 2019, 42 percent of new medication or drug leads were developed from natural products. South Africa has 10 percent of global plant diversity and also has rich African tradition knowledge systems and cultures that may hold secrets to help with the mental health pandemic. The plant that Kaylan researches is called Sceletium or ‘kanna’ and ‘kougoed’. It is the most researched medicinal plant for anxiety and depression in South Africa. His research analyses the chemistry of the plant on the computer before going to the lab for testing. By creating the exact replicas of the parts of the brain that control anxiety and depression on the computer, one can analyse which compounds of the plant bind most tightly, which may be toxic and which may have the best effects.  By first looking at African traditional medicine, then using a computer to see which compounds may be best to help, the amount of time spent testing compounds in the lab can be reduced. Instead of testing a thousand, we may test only the top five candidates from the results on the computer. Through these methods we will get much needed medications to the frontlines of the global mental health pandemic.

Ku fika ka 256 ya gidi ya magidi ya vanhu misava hinkwao va na enzayethi na ntshikelelo wa miehleketo. Vuvabyi lebyi bya yelana, 50 wa tiphesenti ta vanhu lava nga na ntshikelelo wa miehleketo va vabya hi enzayeni. Vanhu lava va vabyaka va phuza maphilisi lawa ya va tirhelaka ya tlhela ya nga endli leswaku va hlangana hlangana. Ku sukela hi 1980 ku ya fika ka 2019, 42 phesenti ya murhi kumbe maphilisi ya endliwe ku suka eka swikumiwa swa ntumbuluko. Afrika-Dzonga yi na 10 phesenti ya swimilana swo tala misava hinkwayo naswona yi na vutivi bya vukhale bya matirhelo ya Afrika na ndhavuko lowu nga khoma swihundla leswi nga ta pfuna eka vuvabyi bya miehleketo. Ximilana lexi Kaylan axi lavisisaka xi vuriwa Sceletium kumbe ‘kanna’ na ‘kougoed’. I ximilana lexi xi nga lavisisiwa ngopfu xa ku endla murhi wa enzayethi na ntshikelelo wa miehleketo eAfrika-Dzonga. Nlavisiso wa yena wu kambisisa matirhelo ya ximilana lexi eka khompyutha xi nga si yisiwa elebu ku ya kambiwa. Hi ku endla swiyenge swo fana na byongo leswi lawulaka enzayethi na ntshikelelo wa miehleketo eka khompyutha, xin’we xi nga kambisisa leswaku iyini lexi tshikelelaka ngopfu ku suka eka ximilana, hi xini xi nga nghozi, naswona hi xihi lexi nga ta pfuna vanhu.  Hi ku languta ka murhi wa xintu wa Afrika ku sungula, kutani utirhisa khompyutha ku kuma leswaku hi swihi leswi nga tirhaka kahle, na nkarhi lowu nga tekiwaka ku kambela murhi lowu wu nga hunguteka. Ematshan’wini yo kambela gidi, hi nga kambela ntsena ntlhanu wa swimilana swa le henhla  eka swikumiwa swa khompyutha. Hi maendlelo lawa hi ta kuma murhi wo enela eka ku tshungula vuvabyi bya miehleketo misava hinkwayo.

Ulingana na 256 ya million ya vhathu vhana utshuwa na mutsiko. Haya malwadze ana utumekanya  na vhathu vha 50 phesenthe(%) vhane vha tambudzwa nga mutsiko nau tambudzwa ngau tshuwa. Zwipondwa izwi zwidzulela udzhia mishonga tshifhiga tshilapfu, vhadovha uri vhatea uwana mishonga yo fanelaho kha mutakalo wavho ine ai disi manwe malwadze nga thungo.  Ubva 1980-2019, 42% ya mishonga na philisi zwo bveledzwa nga miri ya daka. South Africa ina 10% ya zwimelwa kha lifhasi la dovha la pfuma vhutali na mvelole kha dzhango na vhurereli vhune hune ha farekana kuhumbulele kwa mutakalo. Uyo muri kana liluvha le Kaylan a ita tsedzuluso dza hone lini sceletium, kanna na kouged.ndi wone mushonga une wono iteswa tsedzuluso dza hone dza utshuwa na na mutsiko khala Afurika Tshipembe. Tsedzuluso dzawe dzodi sendeka kha chemistry ya zwimela kha khomphuter musi isathuya utolwa lab.

Nelisiwe’s research is working on a solution that helps to detects if a document is fake, through methods that show if there are illegal changes on a document. This is important, for example, for employers who need to verify qualifications. Vital pieces of information on an original document can be selected using coordinates. These coordinates locate text on the document, then a hash function takes in the vital pieces of information and converts these into a single value that cannot be reversed, known as the cryptographic hash. The cryptographic hash is stored in a database to be used later in the verification process to check if the document passes verification or fails. The vital pieces of information are converted into checksum and, along with the coordinates, are stored in the barcode printed on the document. The checksums and the coordinates help to locate exact words that may have been changed in a document and even highlight it.

Vulavisisi bya Nelisiwe byi lava ku tisa xintshuxo lexi nga ta pfuna ku kuma tidhokhumenti ta vuxisi, ku tirhisiwa tindlela to komba leswaku ku nga va ku ri na cinca loku ku ngariki nawini eka tsalwa. Leswi I swa nkoka, xikombiso; eka vathirhi lava va lavaka ku tiyisisa ti dokhumente ta vona.  Mahungu ya nkoka eka dokhumente ya ntiyiso ya nga tsavuriwa ku thirhisiwa ti coordinates. Ti coordinates leti ti kuma tsalwa eka dokhumente kutani ti tsavula muhungu ya nkoka ya yisiwa eka ntlawa wun’we leswi swi nga ta ka swi nga tlherisiwi, ku nga cryptographic hash. Cryptographic hash yi hlayisiwa eka databezi ku va yi tirhisiwa eka nkarhi lowu taka loko ku fanele ku kambisisiwa leswaku dokhumente yi le lawini kumbe e-e. mahungu ya nkoka ya hundzuluxiwa ya va ka checksum na ti coordinates, ya hlayisiwa eka khodi yo fungha leyi yi nga ta tsariwa eka dhokhumenti. Ti checksums na ti coordinates ti pfuna ku kuma marito lawa ya nga wona lawa ya nga hundzuluxiwa eka dhokhumenti ti tlhela ti swi humesela erivaleni.

Neliswe u khou ita tsedzuluso dzau todana na thuso ine yanga thusa u wanulusa mabambiri asia vhukuma. Ngakha kushumele kwau sumbedza uri huna vhufhura hoitwaho nah kha mabambiri ayo. Hezwi ndi zwavhuthogwa, tsumbo, sa vhatholi vha tshi khou toda u sedzulusa zwidodombedzwa. Zwinwe zwazwi dodombedzwa kha mabambiri haya zwia kona uvhonala nga manwe maledere. Ayo maledere a tevhelelana na mitala  kha bambiri,  ngau tavhanya ayo maipfi adzhiiwa aiswa kha vhuthihi  lune angasitsha kona uhumiselwa murahu, zwine zwa vhidzwa upfi cryptographic hash.  Cryptographic hash I dzhenisiwawa kha databeisi uri I shumiswe uri ivhe itshi khou todolosa uri mabambiri ayo o feila. Mafhungo o nwaliwaho aya todoloswa nadzi nomboro dza hone, zwa dadziwa kha barcode ya nambatedziwaho kha bambiri.  Tsedzuluso na dzinomboro zwiita uri rikone uwana maipfi one one ane angavha o shandukiswa kha bambiri adovha a swifhadziwa.

Lake Malawi is shared by three African countries namely; Mozambique, Tanzania and Malawi, and supports the livelihood of more than 1.6 million people. Lake Malawi has the greatest number of freshwater fish species in the world and people travel from all over the world to see them. However, ten percent of the fish species are at risk of extinction, due to pollution, over-fishing and habitat destruction. We need to protect them. Scientists can help by placing cameras underwater in different parts of the lake to monitor the different groups of fish in the water. This helps them find out where each species spends most of their time in the water and enables them to count the numbers of different populations to see how they are changing overtime. This information will show which species need immediate help, and which areas that are most important to them need protecting to help their population recover. It also helps us to create plans to use the lake sustainably so that the fish can be around for years to come and continue supporting the livelihoods they do.

Tiva ra Malawi ri tirhisiwa avelana na mitiko manharhu ya le Afrika ku nga; Mozambique, Tanzania na Malawi naswona ri pfuneta eka swilaveko swa vanhu vo hundza 1.6 ya gidi ya magidi ya vanhu. Tiva ra Malawi ri na tinhlampfi to hambana-hambana misava hinkwayo, vanhu va teka riendzo ku suka eku tindhawu to hambana-hambana misava hinkwayo leswaku va ta vona tona. Kambe, khume ra tiphesenti ta tinhlampfi leti ti le nghozini ya ku ti fa kumbe ku nyamalala hikokwalaho ko tyakisa mati, ku phasiwa ngopfu ka tihlampfi, na ku va ti nga ha tshamisekanga endzeni ka mati. Swi lava hi ti hlayisa. Vanhu va sayense va nga pfuna hi ku chela tikhamera endzeni ka mati eka tindhawu to hambana-hambana ta tiva leswaku va ta vona tinxaka nxaka ya tinhlampfi endzeni ka mati. Leswi swi ta va pfuna ku hlayela tinhlampfi leti kuya hi muxaka wa tona ematini. Leswi swi ta va pfuna ku kuma leswaku ti rhandza ku tshama kwini ematini, va tlhela va kota ku hlayela nhlayo ya tona kuya hi muxaka wa tona leswaku va ta vona leswaku kuna ku cinca ko fika kwini hi ku ya ka nkarhi. Hungu leri ri ta komba leswaku I muxaka wihi wa tinhlapfi wu lavaka ku pfuniwa hi swa xihantla, na leswaku hi tihi ti ndhawu leti ti nga ta nkoka eka tona leswaku ti ta sirheleriwa ku kondza ti vuyelela ematshan’wini. Swi hi pfuna leswaku hi ta kota ku ta na rhengu ro tirhisa tiva leri kahle leswaku tinhlampfi leti titava kona na malembe lawa ya taka ri tlhela ri kota ku ya emahlweni ri pfuneta swilaveko swa vanhu eka leswi va swi endlaka.

Isha la Malawi lo kovhekaniwa na ma dzhango mararu a Afurika; Mozambique, Tanzania na Malawi, la thusedza matshilo avhathu ano fhira 1.6 million ya vhathu.  Isha la Malawi lina madi madzhi avhudi ane khovhe dza vhudi lune vhathu vhatobva mashangoni avho vhatshiya uvhona dzone. Huna 10% ya dzikhofhe dzino dzla afho dzine dzi khomboni yaufa nga nthane hau tshikafhala, nau rewa ha khovhe nau vhulawa ha zwifuwo na madaka.  Ritea uzwi tsireledza. Vho rasaintsi vhangari thusa ngau vhea dzi khamera ngomu madini fhethu hoyaho ngau fhambana kha isha uri rikone uvhonolosa tshaka dza khovhe dzire madini.  Izwi zwithusa khauri vha kone uvhvona uri uri ndi lufhio lushaka lune lwa fhedzesa tshifhinga madini nau thusa uri vha kone u vhala nomboro ya tshakadza dzo fhambanaho uri vha kone u vhona uri dzikho shanduka nga ndilade.  Iyi thuso ido kona ushumbedza uri ndi lufhio lugwada lunokho toda thuso ngau tavhanya, na uri ndinga gai hune zwadzulela uvha hone nauri vha kone uzwithusa kha nyaluwo uri I vhuelele.  Zwidovha zwathusa uri rikone uita dzi pulane dzau shumisa isha nga ndila yavhudi uitela uri khovhe dzivhe hone lwa minwaha mizhi nau isa phanda u thusha matshilo avhathu.

Joanne Riley

Joanne Riley

famelab@saasta.ac.za