FameLab South African Semi-Finalists 2021

FameLab is an international competition designed to engage and entertain by challenging young scientists to communicate their science to a public audience in under 3 minutes. Talks are fun and engaging, making science relevant to everyone, without using jargon or formal presentations. Talks are judged on content, clarity and charisma.

Ginny Tito at FameLab South Africa Semi-Finals 2021

Imagine water coming out of the tap only once every two days, and when it does, it stinks. This was life for Ginny where she grew up in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Today Ginny is committed to water research and helping people understand what’s in their drinking water and its consequences. Her research is aimed at creating a sensor that can detect anti-retroviral drugs in water.

Even though water may look crystal clear and different to murky, brown water, it may not be safe to drink and may contain pollutants that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Example of pollutants that can contaminate water are antiviral medicines, such as Nevirapine, which is used in the treatment of HIV and Aids. Drugs like this find their way into our water systems through urine, faecal waste  and simply by flushing them down the toilet. Drinking contaminated water may lead to drug resistance in the near future, or cause other health problems. Therefore, it is important for us to be able to detect these drugs in the water. The current techniques use big machines, are expensive and time consuming. However, sensors that use ‘quantum dots’, which are tiny nanomaterials smaller than the eye can see, can improve the sensitivity and detection limit of drugs found in low concentrations. With these sensors to help detect pollutants, we hope water can be purified better, so people have cleaner and safer water to consume.

Hambileswi mati ya languteka ya basile ku tlula mati yo languteka ya thyakile ya muhlovo wa ribungwa, kambe a swi vuli leswaku ya nga nwiwa hikuva ya nga va ya ri na thyaka ro kari leri nga voniwiki hi matihlo. Swin’wana leswi thyakisaka mati I mirhi yo fana na Nevirapine ku nga murhi lowu tirhisiwaka ku tshungula xitsongwatsongwana xa HIV na AIDS. Murhi kumbe maphilisi yo fana na lawa ya fika na le tiphayiphini ta mati ku suka eka murhundzu, mahuma loko ku fulaxiwa exihambukelweni. Ku nwa mati yo ka ya nga tenganga swi vangelana kuvabyi. I swa konka ku va hi kota ku vona mirhi leyi endzeni ka mati. Sweswi ku tirhisiwa michini leyikulu yo durha naswona yi teka nkarhi wo leha. Kambe michini leyi tirhisaka ti ‘quantum dots’ ku nga michumu leyintsongo swinene leswi vulaka leswaku hambi hi matihlo a yi voniwi. Michumu leyi hi yona yi nga antswisaka xiyimo lexi hikuva yi nga kota ku vona mirhi leyi endzeni ka mati. Hi maendlelo lawa ha tshemba leswaku mati ya ta tengisiwa ku antswa leswaku vanhu va nwa mati yo tenga.

Naho madi atshi vhonala o tshenuluwa nau tshikafhala, madi otshikafhalaho, azwingavhi zwavhudi uri rianwe ngauri adovha o dalelwa tshika dzine dzingasi vhonwe nga mato a muthu. Tsumbo ya tshika ine ya tshikafhadza madi ndi mishonga yo vhaisalaho kana isongo kunaho, sa Nevirapine, ine ya shumiswa khau alafha HIV and AIDS, philisi idzo dzi wana ndila kha madi ashu ngakha murundo, makaka nangau gwedzhela bunga. Unwa madi o tshikafhalaho zwiita uri philisi musi itshi dzhena muvhili yasa tshavha na maanda, kana yadisa manwe malwadze a mutakalo.  Fhedzi, ndi zwavhuthogwa uri rine rikone uvhona philisi iyo madini. Thekhiniki ya musalauno ishumisa mitshini mihulusa, ino dura ya dovha ya fhedza na tshifhinga. Naho sentsara ine ya shumisa ‘quantum dots’, ine yo tukufhala lune mato angasi kone ui vhona, inga khwinifhadza kuvhonele nau fhungudza diraga yo waniwaho kha kusedzele kutuku.nga hedzi sentsara dzauri thusa khau wana tshika, ri fulufhela uri madi ado kona ukunakiswa zwavhudi, uitela uri vhathu vha kone uwana madi avhudi ano nwea.

Malangu Blose at FameLab South Africa Semi-Finals 2021

Vaccines might a hot topic, but it’s a tried, tested and trusted science. Malangu’s doctoral research looks at the protection that childhood vaccines offer children exposed to HIV. Some of her former research includes projects about stillbirths, TB and HIV co-infection and even how glycerol makes hair grow and the use of yeast cells to clean up mine waste. 

Our body has an army to fight against diseases in our body. Vaccines prepare our armies, in the form of ‘antibodies’, to fight against agents that cause disease, such as pertussis, hepatitis B, measles, tetanus and other diseases. But how long do the antibodies keep gathering, fighting and winning against diseases? How long is the body protected by the vaccines that we receive? In people who have been exposed to HIV, how long are they protected through the vaccines that we receive against other diseases? Research shows that people exposed to HIV have immune systems that function differently from those of healthy individuals, acting like an army that is late to war, or outnumbered, or even having ‘blind’ soldiers. The answers to these questions are very important; as these answers inform our national vaccination guidelines. We need to ensure that every individual that is vaccinated is protected and that the protection is long-lasting.

Miri wa hina wu na masocha lawa ya lwaka na vuvabyi. Swisawutisi swi pfuna masocha ya miri ku lwa na swilo leswi vangaka vuvabyi emirini ku nga, ximbyembye, vuvabyi bya xivindzi, swimunga-mungwana, thethenasi na vuvabyi byi n’wana. Kambe masocha ya miri ya ta lwa nyimpi ya vuvabyi emirini ku fikela rini? Swisawutisi leswi va hi nyikaka swona swi ta hi sirhelela ku fikela rini? Lava va nga na xitsongatsongwana xa HIV, va ta sirheleleka ku fika kwini eka vuvabyi byi n’wana? Vulavusisi le byi nga endliwa byi komba leswaku vanhu lava nga na xitsongwatsongwana xa HIV miri wa vona a wu tirhi ku fana na vanhu la va ngariki na HIV, miri wa vona wu tirha ku fana na masocha lawa ya nga leta nyimpini, vatlhela vava na nhlayo leyi tsongo ya masocha ku tlula masocha la wa va lwaka na wona, nakambe onge I masocha ya bofu. Tinhlamulo eka swivutiso leswi nga laha henhla I ta nkoka swinene, hikuva ti kota ku tivisa eka swiletelo swa swisawutisi swa tiko hinkwaro. Hi fanele ku tiyisisa leswaku munhu un’wana na un’wana lweyi a nga tlhaviwa xisawutisi I sirhelekile naswona nsirhelelo lowu wu fanele wu va wa nkarhi wo leha.

Mivhili yashu ina maswole aulwa na malwadze kha mivhilini yashu, muhayelo u lugisa maswole ngakha tshivhumbeo tsha antibodi, uri ikone ulwa na dzitshika dzothe dzino disa malwadze kha muthu, sa pertussis, hepatitis B, measles, tetanus na manwe malwadze vho. Fhedzi zwidzhia tshifhinga tshingafhani uri dzi antibodi dzi kuvhangane, ulwa nau wina ngakha malwadze? Zwidzhia tshifhinga tshingafhani uri muvhili uvhe wo tsireledzwa khau hayeliwa? Kha vhathu vhathe vhavha na dwadze la HIV, zwidzhia tshifhinga tshingafhan uri vhavhe vho tsireledzwa nga vaccine year dzhia uri ilwe na manwe malwadze? Tsedzuluso dzori sumbedza uri vhathu vhane vhalwala vhulwadze ha HIV vhana tsukanyo ine ya shuma u fhambana na havho vhanwe vhathu vhare na mitakalo yavhudi, unga maswole olengaho uya nndwani, kana asimazhi, kana utovha na maswole a mabofu. Phindulo ya mbudziso idzo ndiya vhuthogwa. Sa izwi idzi phindulo dzitshi divhadza thanganela shango ya tsumba mushumo yau hayeliwa. Rikho tea udziela zhele uri muthu munwe na munwe o hayeliwaho avhe o tsireledzwa nauri tsireledzo iyo ivhe ya tshifhinga tshilapfu

Thabani Mtsi at FameLab South Africa Semi-Finals 2021

Minibus taxis make 15 million commuter trips per day in South Africa. These trips, good or bad, are the only way for many people in Mzanzi to get around. Thabani has committed himself through his research to work with the taxi industry to find ways to improve how passengers experience taxi rides.

Imagine having to wait for a taxi not knowing what time it will arrive. Imagine having to wait in taxi for it to fill up before it will leave. Imagine having to get up 2 hours earlier than the average car driver to get to work on time. This is the reality for minibus tax commuters in South Africa. There is a solution to these challenges, through an app. The app gives information about where the closest taxi is, where the taxi ranks are and how many people are in the taxi. It gives information to commuters on the best way get from point A to point B using taxis. It allows commuters to rate the drivers and hold them accountable, encouraging them to be reliable, accessible and safe. The app has been co-created with many mini-bus taxi industry drivers, owners and mini-bus industry users. This is science for social impact.

Hleketa ku va u rindza tekisi unga swi tivi leswaku yi ta fika hi nkharhi muni. Hleketa ku va u rindza tekisi leswaku yi tala ku kondza yi suka. Hleketa ku va upfuka ti awara timbirhi ku nga siba, lowu tlulaka nkarhi lowu muchayeri a wu tekaka ku va u fika entirhweni hinkarhi. Leswi I swilo leswi endlekaka eka vanhu va matekisi eAfrika-Dzonga. App yi tava xintshuxo eka ntlhontlho lowu. App leyi yi nyika mahungu mayelana na laha ti texisi ti nga kona endhawini ya le kusuhi na laha u nga kona. Yi tlhela yi komba leswaku xitichi xa matekisi xi kwini naswona kuna vanhu va ngaki endzeni ka tekisiNakambe yi nyika mahungu eka vakhandziyi leswaku va nga famba njan ku suka eka ndhawu yo karhi ku ya eka yo karhi va thirhisa tekisiYi va pfumelela leswaku va pima va chayeri va movha no va rhwexa nandzu loko swi fanerile. Leswi I swo va hlohlotela leswaku va tshembeka, va kumeka hi xihatla na ku hlayiseka. App leyi yi vumbiwile na vanhu va matekesi. Leswi I switandzhaku swa sayense eka vaakatiko.

Khavhado humbula uto lindela thekhisi ine au divhi uri ido swika nga tshifhingade. Utshito humbula uri utea ulindela thekhisi iyo uri idale musi isathu takuwa. Utshi humbula uri u tea uvuwa awara mbili musi goloi isathu takuwa uya mushumoni. Uku ndi kone kutshilele kwazwi bisana zwau hwala vhathu afha Afrika tahipembe. Fhedzi huna thandululo kha heyi nyimele, ngakha App. Iyo App ikona usumbedza uri thekhisi kana goloi itsini uswika gai na hune wavha hone. Ifha ndila yavhudi khauri vhanameli vhakone uvhona hune vha khoubva hone na hune vha khouya hone nga iyi thekhisi kana goloi. I dovha yafha vhanameli tshikhala tshau reitha mureili nau vhafareledza, nau vhatutuwedza uri vha fulufhedzee, uswikelelea nau tsireledzea.iyo App yo sikwa na dzinwe dzadzi thekhisi kana goloi dza vhanwe vhareili, vhane vha goloi na vhothe vhano wela kha tshigwada itsho. Iyi science ndiya kushumisele kwa vhudavhidzani kwau thusa tshitshavha.

Ishmael Phalana at FameLab South Africa Semi-Finals 2021

Without water, life is not possible. Ishmael is interested in understanding how our well-being is connected to that of the natural environment. His research looks at the very important topic of water scarcity. Ishmael enjoys participating in projects that positively impact the community. 

Water is one of the most precious recourses and we cannot survive without it. With climate change, water pollution and a growing population, the availability of fresh water is a challenge. A solution is to re-use and purify ‘grey’ water. ‘Grey’ water is domestic, untreated waste water from showers, basins, laundry and dishwashing. It may look dirty, but it is useful. For example, the water can be piped out directly into the garden to water the plants. ‘Grey’ water can be locally treated and re-used. Treatment includes filtering and isolating any particles that may be in the water. Chemicals are added to treat the water, and, lastly, water is treated using micro-organisms. The final product, which is called effluent, can be released in the local rivers or it can be further treated for home usage. However, this treatment needs to be designed to be able to work on a small scale without using advanced, expensive technology. Adopting such measures into our daily lives can save water.

Mati I switirhisiwa swa nkoka naswona a hi nge hanyi handle ka wona. Hi ku cinca ka maxelo, ku thyaka ka mati, na ku andza ka vanhu, mati yo tenga a ya kumeki hi ku olova. Xitshuxo eka xiphiqo lexi I ku hlampya mati lawa ya tirhisiweke ya ku thyaka lawa ya vitaniwaka grey water. Grey water I mati lawa ya tirhisiweke ku suka exihambukelweni, exawareni, exikotlolweni, kuhlampya mpahla na swibye. Ya nga languseka ya thyakile kambe ya nga ha tirhisiwa. Xikombiso, mati lawa ya nga tirhisiwa ku cheleta swimilana. Grey water i ya nkoka hikuva ya nga hlampyiwa ya tlhela ya tirhisiwa nakambe. Ku basisa mati swi katsa ku humesa swilavi na swiphemuphemu endzeni ka mati. Tikhemikhali na tona ta cheriwa loko ku hlampyiwa mati. Xohetelela mati ya basisiwa hi swilo leswi vuriwaka micro-organisms. Mbuyelo wo hetelela ku nga mati yo tyaka ya nga tshuxiwa ya ya eminabyeni kumbe ya nga hlampyiwa nakambe leswaku ya ta tirhisiwa emakaya. Hambiswiritano, ndlela leyi ya ku hlampya mati yi fanele yi tirha eka xikalu lexintsongo handle ka ku tirhisathekinoloji ya le henhla yo durha. Maendlelo lawa evuton’wini bya hina ya nga hlayisa mati.

Madi ndia ndeme kha matshilo ashu, ringasi kone utshila risina madi. Rina ushanduka ha mupo, utshikafhala ha madi nau hulela ha tshika, vhuhone ha madi okunaho azwingo leluwa.tshine tshanga itwa ndiu shumisa hafhu madi, nau tanzwa madi nga mishonga yo fanelaho, madi okunaho ndi one ano todea, madi afanaho na haya anobva khadzi shawara asinaho tshika,,basini, au kuvha nau tanzwa phuleithi. Anagvha na tshika , fhedezi aya shumisea. Tsumbo, madi ayo anga kona u shumiswa nga phaiphi atshi iswa ngadeni ushemeledza zwimela. Madi oshumiswaho anga kona u kunakiswa adovha ashumiswa. Tsireledzo iyo ifanana nau shumisa mishonga nau sefa tshika dzothe kha madi are afho. Khemikhala dzi shelwa uri dzi kone u kunakisa madi, tshaufhedza, madi a kunakiswa nga makhro ororganazimi. Nzhumbululo yau fhedza, ine yavha yau tanzwa, inga kona u bviselwa kha zwidambo zwituku kana a shumiselwa midini henefha. Fhedzi idzo ndingo dzi tea uthoma dza dzulelwa fhasi uri hu sedziwe uri zwinga kona ushuma na kha fhethu vhutukuhusina husina ushumisa zwithu zwino duresa. Adigudisa kushumisele uko kwa madi zwing akona uri thusa khau vhulunga madi.

Nhlanhla Maluleke at FameLab South Africa Semi-Finals 2021

How do you say nanotechnology in Xitsonga? Nhlanhla Maluleke, a microbiology and biochemistry graduate is the guy to ask. Nhlanhla is interested in how nanotechnology (that is science at the level of atoms and molecules) could improve medicines and vaccines to be more effective and safe. He is keen to promote science, nanomedicine in particular, in native languages

Like money needs protection against theft, an mRNA vaccine needs protection against being digested or degraded by enzymes and chemicals within the human body. An mRNA vaccine needs protection, like an armoured truck protects money when transported. The mRNA looks like a coiled string. In order to protect it, we can place it in a nanoparticle, which acts like an armoured truck that protects money during transport. A nanoparticle is a very small particle, a billion times smaller than a tennis ball. Like an armoured truck has a driver and GPS to get it where it needs to go, the nanoparticle allows us to modify its outer structure by adding on different proteins, which enable the nanoparticles to go a specific area within the human body. 

Tanihileswi mali yi lavaka ku sirheleriwa eka vukhamba, na swisawutisi swa mRNA swi lava ku sirheleriwa eka ku hungusiwa kumbe ku ehlisiwa hi tienzayimi na ti khemikhali emirhini. Swisawutisi swa mRNA swi lava nsirhelelo ku fana na movha wa mali leswi mu sirhelerisiwaka xiswona loko wu heleketa mali. mRNA yi fana na ntambhu ya ku sohana. Ku yi sirhelela yi fanele yi vekiwa eka xiphemunyana lexi ntsongo lexi vitiwaka nanoparticle, lexi tirhaka kufana na movha wa ku tiya wa tinsimbi lowu sirhelelaka mali endleleni. xiphemunyana lexi xi nga nghena gidi ya magidi eka bolo ya tennis. Ku fana na movha wo tiya wa tinsimbi wu na muchayeri na GPS ku fika laha yi ya ka kona. xiphemunyana lexi xi hi pfumelela leswaku hi lulamisa xivumbiwa xa xona ehandle hi ku engetela ti proteyini to hambana-hambana, leswi swi endlaka ti swiphemuphemu leswi swi ya laha swi faneleke ku ya kona emirini.

Vhunga tshelede itshitoda utsireledzwa kha mbava, Muhayelo wa Mrna utoda utsireledzwa khau milwa kana utsitselwa hasi ngadzi enymes nadzi khemikhala kha muvhili wa muthu. Muhayelo wa Mrna utoda tsireledzo, vhunga vhalinda tsireledzo vha magoloi a tshelede. Mrna idi tounga khoili yo songanaho uri ikone u tsireledzwa, inga kona uvhewa kha nanoparticles, dzine dza shuma sa magoloi au tsireledza tshelede musi itshikhou tshimbidza. Nanoparticles ndi zwilavhi zwo tukufhalaho, zwo tukufhalesa u fhira na bola ya tenisi. Vhunga ligoloi la tshelede lina mareili na GPS uri likone uvha swikisa hune la khouya hone. Nanoparticles iri tendela uri ri kone u shandukisa tshivhumbeo tsha nga nnda nga engedza phurotheini dzoyaho ngau fhambana. Zwine zwa tendela nanoparticles uri dzi kone uya fhethu hune dza divha uri dzi khouya hone kha muvhili wa muthu.

Rachana Desai at FameLab South Africa Semi-Finals 2021

Life is not always easy growing up in Soweto. Rachana uses her postdoctoral research to understand what life is like for adolescents in Soweto. She combines storytelling and technology to learn about the impact of rapid urbanization, technological advancements, a global pandemic, economic inequality and violence on youths. She gives young people a platform to share their experiences and create solutions with them for the challenges they face.

Social connection with others is very vital to healthy brain development. During adolescence, the social brain responsible for processing and interpreting social situations is changing the most. The brain is like a rose bush; the weak branches are pruned away while the remaining are branches strengthened. This fine-tuning of the brain tissues depends on the environment we grow up in. Covid-19 has changed the entire world overnight and the internet is no longer a luxury but a life-line. Socialisation in the digital world could replicate social interaction and still give adolescents access to education, their friends and their ability to develop awareness, empathy, creativity and community. On the other hand, socialisation and cyber behaviours are more complex than offline social interactions. Anonymity has given rise to trolling, ghosting, and cyber-bullying, intending to harm others. As cognitive scientists, we have come up with a number of ways of testing the development of the social brain. In the lab, we run computerised games that mimic offline and digital social interactions and we measure performance in these tasks over time as participants go through their early teens. The pandemic has redefined childhood and social life globally. Are we strengthening the digital branches of the brain or are we weakening the offline social ones?

Ku ti hlanganisa na vanhu van’wana swi endla leswaku u va na rihanyo ra kahle emiehleketweni. Loko u kula byongo hi byona byi tirhaka ku fambisa swilo naswona byi kota ku vona swilo leswi cincaka na leswi hluvukaka. Byongo byi fana na khwati ra swiluva, marhavi yo ka ya nga tiyanga ya susisiwa kambe lawa ya salaka ya tiyisiwa. Ti thixu ta byongo ti cinca ku ya hi ndhawu leyi hi kulaka eka yona. Covid-19 yi cince swilo swo tala misava hinkwayo hi xinkarhana naswona inthaneti a ka ha ri swilo swa mayemo kambe hi hanya hi yona. Ku hanyisana na vanhu eka misava ya thekinology swi nga endla leswaku ku va na ku tirhisana na vanhu van’wana, yi tlhela yi nyika vana ndlela yo dyondza, va tlhela va ti hlanganisa na vanghana va vona, na ndlela ya vona yo lemukisa vanhu, vumunhu, vuswikoti na vaaka-tiko. Hi tlhelo rin’wana, mahlanganelo ya vanhu na mingingiriko ya vona eka inthanete a swi twisiseki ku fana na loko vanhu va hlangana hi matihlo. Leswi nga tiviwiki hi leswaku maendlelo yo tsala swilo swo homboloka eka inthaneti, ku hambana ka vanhu, ku rhumela vanhu mahungu yo va chavisa, na ku lava ku vavisa van’wani vanhu ya le henhla hikokwalaho ka intheneti. Tani hi ti sayense ta miehleketo na byongo, hi tile na ti ndlela to hambana ta ku kambela nhluvuko wa matirhelo ya byongo. eLebu hi laha hi endlaka mintlango eka khompyutha ku va hi cisetela leswi swi humelelaka eka inthanete na le handle kayona ku ya hi leswi vanhu va vulavurisanaka xiswona. Leswi swi ta hi pfuna ku va hi pima matirhelo lawa loko nkarhi wu famba tani hi leswi lava nga kona vata va va hundza eka vuhlangi bya vona. Ntungu lowu wu cince maendlelo ya vuhlangi na leswi vanhu a va hanyisa xiswona misava hinkwayo.

Nyambedzano vhukati ha vhathu zwi disa mutakalo kha kualutshele kwa maluvhi. Nga tshino tshifhinga, kuhumbulele kwau bveledzisa nau talukanya dzi nyimele kukho shanduka nga maanda. Vhuluvhi vhunga liluvha la daka, matavhi masekene ayawa ngeno haya madenya atshi lalama ahula akhwatha. U hula ha meme dza vhuluvhi zwi tendelana na mupo une ra dzula khawo. Covid-19 yo shandukisa zwizhi ngau bonya ha ito, inernethe ai tshavha ya mathakheni fhedzi yonotovha nendila wa matshilo ashu duvha na duvha. Nyambedzano kha dzi thingothendeleki kana thekhinolodzhi zwinga shandukisa kutshilele kana nyambedzano ya dovha hafhu yafha khonadzeo kha vhudifungi ha pfunzo. Nga thungo nyambedzano nau tambudzana zwodzhia ndango ufhira nyambedzano yavhudi. Utambudza vhanwe zwikho hulela nga maanda, utshuwisana, utambudza lwa tshituhu zwitshi khou itelwa u huvhadza vhawe. Sa vho rasaintsi wa mihumbulo, roda na mbalo dzovhalaho dzau ita ndingo ya nyaluwo ya vhudifungi ha maluvhi. Hezwi ri laboretharini, ri shumisa dzi geimi dzo itwaho nga khomphutha dzi fanaho na nyambedzano dzine vhathu vhaita kha zwishumiswa zwa vhudavhidzani kana hunwevho, ri kala kushumele kwa maluvhi avho nga zwishumo nyana zwine ra vha nea nga murahu ha tshifhinga, nga maandesa vha dzheneleli vhazwo vha tshe minwahani ya u thoma ya vhufumi. Phendemiki yori humisela vhutukuni, nakha tshumela shango nga vhuphara. Rikho kwhathisa matavhi kana matsinde a vhuluvhi kana rikho tsitsela fhasi tshumelo yo valwaho na.

Thandokuhle Gama at FameLab South Africa Semi-Finals 2021

From dagga to diabetes, as a pharmacological researcher, Thando is interested in the effects of drugs on the body. Her master’s degree is focused on treating and finding a cure for diabetes. In her previous work, she looked at the toxic effect of cannabis on cells and how to develop tests that police and employers can use to spot a doper. She is passionate about using pharmaceuticals to seek solutions to societal issues.

There are two kinds of cannabis that differ in their chemical contents and their uses. The first one is called marijuana and contains a chemical that is responsible for making one ‘high’. That chemical is tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC. The other one is called hemp, which is commonly used for fibre and contains little THC and, therefore, cannot make one ‘high’. Hemp and marijuana cannot be told apart by just looking at them. However, with a simple, fast and relaible method that shows their chemical differences, hemp and marijuana can be told apart. ‘Chromatography’ is a process whereby a mixture of chemicals is separated into its individual chemicals and can be shown as marks on a paper. The method can be used to determine how much of each chemical, such as THC, is present in an unknown cannabis sample. In 2018, the private use of cannabis is permitted in South Africa. However, its public use, growth and distribution still remain illegal and it is monitored by permits. This detection method can be adapted so that police officials could also use it to determine on the spot if any cannabis sample that is being transported corresponds to hemp or to marijuana. This method can also be used by the medicines regulatory body, SAHPRA, to ensure that cannabis products meet the global requirements.

Ku na tinxaka timbirhi ta timbangi leti hambanaka hi ti khemikhali na matiriselo ya tona. Yo sungula yi vitani marijwana yona yina khemikhali leyi yi endlaka leswaku munhu atitwa ari ka xiyimo xa le henhla. Khemikhali leyi I tetrahydrocannabinol ku nga THC hi ku komisa. Leyin’wana yi vitaniwa hemp leyi tirhisiwaka ku endla fayiba kambe yona yina THC leyintsongo, naswona a yi endli munhu a titwa a ri henhla ngopfu. Hemp na marijwana swi nga hambanisiwa. Khromotografi I endlelo ro karhi leri hambanisaka ti khemikhali leti hlanganisiweke ku va ti va hi muxaka wa tona, leswi swi nga kombiwa hi thonsi eka phepha. Maendlelo lawa ya nga tirhisiwa ku kuma leswaku I khemikhali yo fika kwini ya THC leyi nga kona eka mbangi leyi nga tiviwiki. Hi 2018, matirhiselo ya mbangi ya le xihundleni ya pfumeleriwile eAfrika-Dzonga. Kambe, a swi pfumeleriwanga leswaku yi tirhisiwa evanhwini, ku yi kurisa na ku yi avela hikuva a swi le nawiwini naswona ku endla sweswo swi lava u va upfumeleriwile. Maendlelo lawa yo kambisiswa ya nga endliwa hi maphorisa ya nawu leswaku va ta hambanisa mbangi leyi nga layichiwa ku kuma leswaku ya fana na hemp kumbe marijwana. Maendelo lawa ya nga tirhisiwa nakambe hi vanhu va swa rihanyo ku nga SAPHRA, ku tiyisisa leswaku swiendliwa swa timbangi swi fikelela swilaveko swa misava hinkwayo.

Huna tshaka mbili dza mbazhe dzine dzo fhambana khadzi khemikhala nakha kushumisele. Yau thoma ivhidzwa upfi marijuana ine yo dalelwa nga khemikhala ine iita uri muthu a riiwe.iyo khemikhala ipfi tetrahydrocannabinol, ine ya dovha ya vhipfi ndi THC. Inwe ipfi hemp, ine I shumiswa uita fibre ine yavha na THC yolinganelaho, ine ingasi kone u ria muthu. Hemp na marijuana ungasito kona uzwi fhambanyisa ngauto sedza nga mato. Huna zwishumiswa zwine zwia kona uvhona mbanyo ya khemekhala idzo naho tshitshitovha tshituku. Hemp na marijuana zwia kona ufhambanyiswa.’Chromatography’ ndi ndila ine huna thanganyiso yadzi khemikhala ine yo fhambanyiswa kha vhuthihi ha khemikhala, ya dovha hafhu ya sumbedzwa sazwe ya topoliswa zwone kha bambiri. Uyo method unga kona u shumisiwa uri huna khemikhala nngafhani, inonga sa THC, uri ihone mbazhe isa divheiho na. nga 2018, u shumiswa hadzi mbazhe vhethu ho tsireledzwaho zwo tendelwa khala Afrika Tshipembe. Utavhiwa nau rengiswa hadzi mbazhe fhethu ho vuleaho azwingo tendelwa, zwadovha zwa sedzuluswa nanga dzi phemith dza hone. Mitshini yau sedza mbazhe inga kona ushumiswa nauri mapholisa akone u wanulusa arali huna mbazhe dzinokho tshimbidzwa badani. Ayo maitele anga kona ushumiswa nanga havha vhau kona usedza mishonga ire muvhilini wa muthu. SAHPRA, itea uvhona uri mbazhe dzi kone u swikela thanganyela ya shango.

Zinhle Mthombothi at FameLab South Africa Semi-Finals 2021

Zinhle uses her impressive math skills to help us fight the diseases that mosquitoes spread. She creates mathematical models that simulate and analyse how malaria and dengue fever is spread by mosquitoes. Her models allow scientists to find the best possible strategies to disrupt the transmission of these harmful diseases. Zinhle is an African scientist, working to solve African problems using mathematics!

Mosquitoes kill almost a million people every year through the mosquito-borne diseases that they transmit, such as Zika virus, yellow fever, malaria and dengue. There are over 400 million cases of dengue every year globally. Symptoms include high fever, rash, as well as muscle and joint pain. In severe cases, there is severe bleeding and shock, which is life threatening. As far as we know, there is no dengue transmission in South Africa. However, we know that the mosquito species that transmit dengue are present and our environmental conditions favour the transmission of dengue. Dengue has been emerging and re-emerging worldwide. Hence, we believe SA is at risk of Dengue emerging. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue. Mosquito control is the only way to limit it spreading, but mosquitoes are becoming resistant to insecticides. We can use weapons like mathematical modelling to defend ourselves. Mathematical modelling creates an imaginary world that resembles real-life conditions. This helps us to understand how mosquitos operate, as well as finding out how the population will grow and helps us to assess how dengue will spread. The results can guide us on how to make decisions in real-life. Using mathematical modelling is cheaper and it allows us to try different possible scenarios without worrying about the financial and resource limitations. These methods helps us to better equipped to fight the war against mosquitos. 

Lembe na lembe tinsuna ti dlaya vanhu vo lava ku ringana gidi ya magidi hi vuvabyi lebyi va byi kumaka loko va lumiwa hi tinsuna, ku fana na xitsongwatsongwana xa zika, dari-nyongwa, malariya na dengue ku nga vuvabyi lebyi vangiwaka hi ku lumiwa hi nsuna. Kuna 400 ya gidi ya magidi ya vanhu lava nga khomiwa hi dengue lembe na lembe misava hinkwayo. Leswi u swi vona hi loko munhu a ri na dari kumbe ku hisa ka miri, swirhumbarhumbana, na ku vava ka misiha na laha ku hlanganaka marhambu. Minkarhi yo tala ku va na ku halaka ka ngati na ku heleriwa hi ngati emirini leswi swi nga tekaka vutomi bya munhu. Tanihileswi hi swi tivaka, dengue a yi se va xiphiqo eAfrika-Dzonga. Kambe ha swi tiva leswaku muxaka wa tinsuna leti chelakana vuvanyi bya dengue ti kona kambe xiyimo xa ndhawu ya hina xi nga swi kota ku hangalasa vuvabyi lebyi. Vuvabyi bya dengue byi humelela misava hinkwana byi tlhela byi phinda phinda. Hi na ku tshemba leswaku Afrika-Dzonga yi le nghozini yo fikela hi vuvabyi lebyi bya dengue. Eka nkarhi wa sweswi a ku na vutshunguri bya dengue. Murhi wo dlaya tinsuna hi yona ndlela yo hunguta vuhangalasi bya vuvabyi lebyi, hambiswiritano swa tika leswaku tinsuna leti ti fa hi nkwato. Modele wa ximatetatiki wu tumbuluxa ndlela eka swilo leswi nga voniwiki leswi kombisaka leswi hi swi hanyaka. Leswi swi ta hi pfuna ku va hi twisisa leswaku tinsuna ti hanya njhani, hi tlhela hi kuma leswaku ti andzisa ku yini. Leswi swi ta hi pfuna ku hlela vuvabyi bya dengue ku byi ta hangalaka njhani. Mbuyelo wa kona wu ta hi pfuna ku va hi teka swiboho evuton’wini. Ku tirhisa modhele wa ximatematiki swi chipile naswona swi hi pfumelela ku va hi tirhisa ti ndlela to hambana-hambana, na ku ka hi nga vileli hi swa timali na ku pfumala switirhisiwa swo enela. Matirhelo lawa ya hi pfuna leswaku hi kota ku ti yimela leswaku hi ta lwisana na tinsuna leti.

Vhunyunyu hukona u vhulaya vhathu vhano swikha kha tshivhala tsha million kha nwaha nga dzwadze line la phadalwadzwa nga vhunyunyu, sa zika virus, yellow fever, malaria na dengue. Huna tshivhalo tshino phada 400 million tsha kheisi ya dengue nwaha munwe na munwe shango nga vhuphara. Tsumba dzwadze dza hone ndi, ushuluwa mabiko kana upfa uswa nga maanda, rashi, naupfa uvhavha hafha kha misiphanda na upfa uvhavha khadzi tanganyelo dza marambo. Kha khesi dzo godombelaho, huna ubva malofha lusa fheliho, usthuwa, zwine zwivha zwikho vhanga mutsiko kha vhutshilo ha muthu. Sa zwine ra divhisa zwone ahuna vhulwadze ha Dengue khala Afrika Tshipembe. Zwia divhea uri vhunyunyu uvhu vhuno disa vhulwadze ha Dengue vhuhone, fhedzi mupo washu au koni uri tsireledza khau phadalala ha Dengue. Dengue ikho soko phadalala na shango lothe. Zwia divhea uri Afrika Tshipembe likha khombo yau wana Dengue uri I phadalale. Zwazwino ahuna mushonga wau alafha dengu. Mufafadzelo wa vhunyunyu ndi yone ndila ine yakho kona ufhungudza kuhulele kwa Dengue, fhedzi vhyunyu vhukho thoma udowela mushongo hoyu wauzwi vhulaya. Huna zwishumiswa zwinzhi zwine ranga shumisa udi tsireledza ufananho na mathematical modelling. Modele wa mathemathikhi I vhumba kuhumbulele kwa shango kune kwavha tsumba mushumo ya matshilo a vhathu. Izwi zwiri gudisa uri ridivhe uri vhunyunyu vhutshila nga ndilade, nau wana uri lushaka lunga hula nga ndilade, luri thuse uri Dengue inga phadalala hani. Mawanwa ayo ado kona uri thusa uri ri dzhie vhudifhinduleli vhufhio kha vhutshilo ha vhukuma., Kushumisele hoku kuri thusa khaulwa na uphadalala ha vhunyunyu.

Brian Kariithi at FameLab South Africa Semi-Finals 2021

Just as our skin and eye colours differ from person to person, so do our responses to medicine. Brian is a dedicated scientist whose current PhD research looks at the link between our DNA and how well specific pharmaceuticals work for us. He is interested in the commercialisation of scientific research and creating bigger African-based biological science ...

Numerous animals have been used in research in disease modelling and drug development. Humans and animals have many genetic similarities, and share a lot of the same major genes that affect drug efficacy and safety. However, animals like rabbits are not humans and, therefore, and the data that is generated from animal models can be difficult to translate to humans. We need human-relevant models. Stem cells may provide solutions. Stem cells are the regenerative cells of the body and they can become any type of cells in the whole body, such as brain, lungs, heart or liver cells. People can donate stem cells and, in the lab, we can create tiny ‘micro livers’ to test how drugs potentially could potential interact with human livers. This could revolutionise how we see drug safety and efficacy research. It can assist in generating better data that that will be more human-relevant and it takes animals out of the lab and out of harm’s way.

Swihari swo tala swi tirhisiwile eka nlavisiso wa vuvabyi na ku endla murhi. Tijini to tala ta vanhu na swiharhi ta fana, nakambe kuna ku avelana ka tijini ta nkoka leti lawulaka matirhelo ya murhi na ku hlayiseka emirini. Hambiswiritano, swiharhi swo fana na mimpfundla a hi vanhu naswona datha leyi tekiwaka eka modhele wa swiharhi wu nga va wu tika ku va wu fananisiwa na wa vanhu. Ku laveka timodhele leti faneleke ta vanhu. Ti sele ta miri hi tona ti nga tisaka ku cinca. Ti sele ta miri I ti sele leti ti faka ti tlhela ti pfuka emirini, ti nga va sele yin’wani na yin’wani miri hinkwawo, kufana na byongo, mahahu, na mbilu kumbe ti sele ta xivindzi. Vanhu va nga swi kota ku nyikisa hi swirho swa miri naswona elebu hi nga endla swivindzi leswintsongo ku ta kambela leswaku murhi wu nga tirha njani eka swivindzi swa vanhu. Leswi swi nga cinca leswi murhi hi wu vonisaka xiswona na nkoka wa nlavisiso. Swi nga pfuna ku kuma datha leyi nga ta tisa ku cinca eka vanhu, leswi swi nga susaka swihari elebu na ku va swi ri nghozini.

Vhunzhi ha zwipuka zwoshumiswa kha thoduluso ya malwadze ozwino kana maswa nau tumbulwa ha diraga. Vhathu na zwipuka vhaya elana zwitshida kha tshivhumbeo, vhadovha vhavha na dzi dzhini dzino elana dzine dza kwamana na vhundeme ha diraga nau tsireledzea haho. Zwipuka zwingaho mivhuda azwi fanana na vhathu, nauri data ine yado waniwa kha zwipuka inga konda uri ikone upfukiselwa kha vhathu. Huco todea modele ino fanana naya vhathu. Stem sele dzino wanala muvhilini wa muthu ndi dzone dzine dzangada na thandululo. Stem sele ndi dzone sele dzine dzakona uvusuludza maanda kha muvhili wa muthu dza dovha hafhu dzavha inwe sele kha muvhili, ufanana na vhuluvhi, mala, mbilu, tshivhindi. Vhathu vhaya kona uri vha nekedze vhanwe vhathu zwi stem sele, kha lab, ringa vhumba micro livers thukhu uri rikone uita ndingo diraga dzine dzadori thusa uita thangiso na zwivhindi zwa vhathu. Hezwi zwinga disa nzhumbululo khaku sedzele kwa tsireledzo ya diraga na vhundeme ha thoduluso. Zwinga thusa khau wanulusa data yakwine ine yadovha kwine kha muthu, zwipuka zwatea ubviswa lab na fhethu hune zwanga huvhala hone.